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Russia or the Russian Federation is a country with a long history, the home of famous scientists and a country of natural beauty. Moscow is the capital of Russia, and Vladimir Putin is the president of Russia (Russian Federation).
Russia (formerly known as the United State of the Soviet Republic of the USSR) covers an area of 17,075,500 km2, making Russia the largest country in the world, followed by Canada, China and the United States. Russia occupies most of Eastern Europe and Northern Asia. It extends from the Baltic Sea in the west to the Pacific Ocean in the east and from the Arctic Ocean in the north to the Black Sea and the Caucasus in the south. It borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Belarus, Ukraine, Poland, Lithuania, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China and North Korea. The borders of Russia stretch a total of 58,562 km (14,253 km bordering other states and 44,309 km bordering the sea).
Russia or Russian Federation is a country with great history, home of famous scientists and land of natural beauty. Moscow is the capital of Russia and Vladimir Putin is the President of Russia (Russian Federation).
Russia (was formerly known as USSR United State of Soviet Republic) covers area of 17 075 500 km2 which makes Russia the largest country in the world, followed by Canada, China and the USA. Russia occupies most of Eastern Europe and northern Asia. It stretches from the Baltic Sea in the west to the Pacific Ocean in the east, and from the Arctic Ocean in the north to the Black Sea and the Caucasus in the south. It’s bordered by Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Belarus, Ukraine, Poland, Lithuania, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China and North Korea. Russia’s borders stretch for a total of 58,562 km (with 14,253 km bordering other states and 44,309 km bordering the sea).
By the 19th century Russia had expanded its territory and its power considerably. Its borders extended to Afghanistan and China, and it had acquired extensive territory on the Pacific coast. The foundation of the port cities of Vladivostok and Port Arthur there had opened up profitable avenues for commerce, and the construction of the Trans-Siberian Railway to link the European Russia with its new eastern territories. In 1894 Nicholas II acceded to the throne. In January of 1905, the Japanese attacked, and Russia experienced a series of defeats that dissolved the tenuous support held by Nicholas. Nicholas was forced to grant concessions to the reformers, including most notably a constitution and a parliament, or Duma. The power of the reform movement was founded on a new and powerful force that entered Russian politics. The industrialization of the major western cities and the development of the Batu oil fields had brought together large concentrations of Russian workers, and they soon began to organize into local political councils, or soviets. It was in large part the power of the soviets, united under the Social Democratic party, that had forced Nicholas to accept reforms in 1905. In 1912, the Social Democrats split into two camps–the radical Bolsheviks and the comparatively moderate Menshiviks. by 1920 the Bolsheviks were the of soviet Russia. By 1920 the Bolsheviks were the soviet of Russia.
The first few years of Soviet rule were marked by an extraordinary outburst of social and cultural change. Although the Bolsheviks had maintained complete control of the economy during the civil war but by the end of the 1930s, the Soviet Union had become a country in which life was more strictly regulated than ever before. With the outbreak of the Second World War, the Soviet Union found itself unprepared for the conflict. In june 1941 the German army invaded into Soviet Russia by seizing most of the Soviet territory in the west, surrounded St. Petersburg and within a few hundred miles of Moscow. In 1942 the Germans launched a new invasion against the southern front in an attempt to gain control of the rail center of Stalingrad on the Volga and the vital Caucasus oil fields. Despite an overwhelming disadvantage in numbers and inferior weaponry, the Russian army succeeded in holding out against the enormous German army. In November, a relieving force managed to encircle the attackers and compel the surrender of the entire force, marking a decisive turning point in the war. From that point onward, the Russian army remained on the attack. By 1944 they had driven the Germans back to Poland, and on May 2, 1945, wall of Berlin was fallen.
In 1990 Russian Repeblic ended the soviet era and declared its independence.
Most of the area of Russia is located in the temperate zone. The Arctic territories are located in the Arctic and sub-Arctic zones, but at the same time, a small section of the Caucasus Black Sea coast is located in sub-tropical zone. Russia has all the climatic zones except tropical: tundra, forest-tundra, forests, forests-steppes and semi-deserts.
The climate is mostly continental. Most of the country has a so called harsh continental climate characterized by a big difference between summer and winter temperatures (it gets indeed very cold in Siberia during winter, but it is also very hot in the summer). Average January temperatures are from 0 to -5 degrees in the western Russia, but sometimes -40 degrees in other parts. The average July temperatures are from 1 to 25 degrees.
The climate induce an unbalance between different parts of Russian area, so many large parts of country have almost no population and development. Russia has only 8 % of arable land.
Most of the rivers are located in the basin of the Arctic Ocean (Ob, Irtysh, Yenisei and Lena). The Amur, Anadyr, Penzhinsk and some other rivers are located in the basin of the Pacific Ocean, and the Don, Kuban and Neva flow into the seas bordering the Atlantic Ocean. The main river of Russia, the Volga, flows into the Caspian Sea. As a rule, in Russia there are about 3 million km of rivers. There are many lakes in Russia, fresh or salt. The largest lakes are the Caspian, Baikal, Ladoga, Onega and Taimir. Baikal is the largest freshwater lake in the world, with a maximum depth of 1,620 meters.
The forest covers about 40% of the entire territory of Russia. The largest forests are in the Siberian taiga, in the eastern part of the country and the northern part of the European territory. The most frequent forest is coniferous forest. There are also several mixed forests in the Central Russian regions.
Russia has many natural resources, including large deposits of oil, coal, natural gas, a lot of strategic minerals, diamonds and wood. The largest oil and gas fields can be found in Western and Eastern Siberia and on Sakhalin Island. The list of Russian mineral deposits includes gold, silver, platinum, cobalt, antimony, zinc, mercury and many others. Russia abounds in mineral resources, the total potential value of which (in world prices) is estimated at an impressive 30 trillion dollars.
Population and Society
Russia has the world’s fifth largest population (148,8 million people) after China, India, the United States and Indonesia. Russia is a multiethnic society. The largest ethnic groups include Russians (81.5%), Tatars (3.8%), Ukrainians (3%), Chuvash (1.2%), Bashkir (0.9%), Byelorussians (0.8%), Moldavians (0.7%), etc. Over 80 % of the population name Russian – the official language of the country – as their native. Other languages are used in ethnic minority regions. Russia has equal religious diversity: with the main religions being Russian Orthodox Christianity and Muslim overall over 150 confessions could be found across the country.
All in all, 73 per cent of Russian citizens live in urban areas.
The Russian Federation has 1067 major cities, with 13 of them inhabited by one million and more people each. The largest cities are Moscow, St. Petersburg, Nizhny Novgorod, Novosibirsk and Yekaterinburg. Administratively, the Russian Federation is divided into 21 republic, 6 krays (federal territories), 2 federal cities, 49 regions, 1 autonomous region and 10 autonomous areas.
Russia has over 50,000 state public libraries in total possession of over a billion books. There are about 1500 museums (historical, ethnographic. memorial, of folk crafts, fine and applied arts, theatre, music, natural sciences, technology and many others). Twenty open-air ethnographic museums present folk architecture, arts and everyday life. Today, folk art in Russia survives in two basic forms – handicrafts practiced on a broad scale and works of art created by gifted persons working at home.